Most of the time when Linux has serious problems, it can run in a reduced capacity. But sometimes that capacity is reduced to a really painful point. Specifically, when the root filesystem gets mounted as “read only”.
This usually happens if the root filesystem is detected as corrupt, although recently I had it happen when a core mount failed — and because the root filesystem was read-only, I couldn’t edit the failing mount!
There’s an old technique I used to use for things like this, but changes in the boot process (grub) and system initialization (systemd) caused them to no longer be usable.
Fortunately, there’s a modern-day alternative.
When your system’s grub menu comes up, edit the OS kernel options line. That’s the line that references the “vmlinuz” root file.
Add the option
rd.break to that line and proceed with booting. The “break” option will cause the initial ramdisk to load and set up a minimal OS environment capable of loading and initializing the full kernel, but it will halt at the point where the primary filesystem root has been temporarily mounted under
/sysroot. You can unmount it and run filesystem repairs, if needed, chroot to it and reset the root password or fix show-stopping errors (like my bad fstab file!). and then reboot the repaired system.
Of course, this is only one recovery option. For best reliability it’s a good idea to keep a stand-alone boot “disk” (USB or whatever) and/or a recovery PXE boot.
For much more detailed information, look here: https://docs.fedoraproject.org/en-US/fedora/latest/system-administrators-guide/kernel-module-driver-configuration/Working_with_the_GRUB_2_Boot_Loader/
Note that on RHEL9, this process apparently broke for a while. An alternative option was to add a boot into
/bin/bash on the grub boot command line.